Exploring Stem Cell Therapies in Autism Spectrum Disorders

I am always intrigued by the incredible resistance new ideas engender in the medical community.  Literally, every potentially effective intervention must first survive the internet onslaught of critiques and vilification.  That is absolutely the case for stem cells in the therapy of autism. Various websites state there is NO evidence for any number of treatments.  But claim simply isn’t true as you will see in the post.  But in the circle of autism debates, researchers at Duke University are being criticized for even studying stem cells.  (see below). The Duke study is unlikely to generate impressive results since it using autologous (self-derived) stem cells from the umbilical cord of the affected child.  That implies the environment and genetics of the individual were healthy at the time of delivery and that whatever caused the autism – wasn’t already present. I’m not confident that is a good assumption. 


US researchers tend to think of themselves as the leaders in all medical technologies. In reality, the US remains decades behind other countries when it comes to stem cell research. What the US scientist would like to do with stem cells is to engineer a process for encoding certain features (like brain repair) into the stem cell so they can ultimately control the patent on the process.  Patents are about the only way universities can generate income apart from collegiate sports (a big money winner). 

One of the reasons I went to Ukraine to study stem cell therapies for autism is they have over twenty years of experience with stem cell therapies.




After years of the excellent work by the scientists and doctors at EmCell, I, along with my collaborators from Italy, published our combined observations in Cell Transplantation [above]. The results speak for themselves.  No they are not controlled, but these are impressive reductions in symptom scores andfor children with autism, any significant change over a small period of time is most unusual.

Russian and Ukrainian medicine was isolated from the Big Pharma influences of Europe and the US until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. For these reasons they evolved in their thinking about disease in a somewhat different manner than Western doctors.


This slide is from I talk I gave in 2013 regarding stem cells.  It helps to demonstrate the potential for a multipotential neural stem cell for repair of spinal cord injuries.  Spinal cord repair is complicated by the changes that take place in the brain after injury to the cord.  The potential for stem cells to enter the brain and become new circuits in cognitive and language pathways is extremely remote, and I remain extremely skeptical about our potential to use them in that way.

Instead, in all of my publications on stem cells I use the term “biopharmacies”, and I think this describes implanted stem cells the best. What does the term really mean. Simply this: stem cells as chemical factories are miniature powerhouses. The type of stem cell and its level of maturation determines what the biopharmacy produces and how long it will stay active.  As a stem cell matures, it looses its “steminess” and transitions into a typical cell.  When that happens the pharmacy is largely closed for business. Potency for stem cells usually is determined by the ability of the cells to make more stem cells. In our use of the term “biopharmacy” we include that but are particularly more concerned with the strength of their pharmaceutical cocktail.  So a neuronal stem cells derived from fetal brain tissues are presumed to be the most potent at producing a cocktail of brain healing factors.  Stem cells derived from  blood precursor cells will have different effects – many of them aimed at the immune system. This is where the umbilical cord derived stem cells come in.  They are largely immunologically active – but that may be critical to resident immune cells such as the astrocytes and microglial cells in the brain. 


In summary, Stem Cells are an important part of the ongoing efforts of many clinicians and scientists to help children with autism.  Ultimately, I would like to see these biopharmacies harnessed and their chemistry exploited, but we are likely years to decades away from that happening.  In meantime, experienced centers like EmCell deserve consideration and I look forward to furthering our collaborations. And despite all the Western media concerns, Kiev is doing well.  Patients how have been there recently report back that the conditions are safe and stable.

Evidence of Cortical Disorganization in Autism: Comparing Transcranial Ultrasound (TUS) to Microstructure; with Thoughts on Enhanced Means to Restore the Autism Brain.

Shortly after Marco Ruggiero, Stefania Pacini and I published our findings using a novel method of transcranial ultrasonographic imaging (TUS) to image the autism brain and surrounding structures, Eric Courchesne, the noted neuroscientist from UCSD, published their findings of cortical (higher brain) defects which seems very similar in nature and which may be related to our own observations. The Courchesne team did their work with autopsy brains, so the obvious intrigue here is whether we are now able to use our ultrasound methods to visualize these defects.  Since we both published our data at nearly the same time we were unaware of the each others’ observations.  Now, and for the first time, I will compare what we saw with ultrasound and termed cortical abnormalities (and possibly dysplasia) to what Courchesne refers to as “patches” based on RNA expression and microstructure on tissue evaluations. This post is lengthy, rather technical and regrettably complex, but are of extreme importance.  Herein, I will describe the combined transcranial technologies: pulsed magnetic (see prior posts), low level laser and focused ultrasound, which are presently in routine use at our facility in the Atlanta area.  Let’s explore why this is all so important to autism. 

[Note: this post will not view well on a phone, so please use a computer or tablet]

We start here with the observations from UCSD which tell us that “patches” of disorganization exist in areas of the autism brain which correspond with the observed language, social and repetitive abnormalities.










As a quick background on TUS, it functions much like sonar an sends out high frequency vibrations which reflect off the tissues based on the density of the structures.

More density means more reflection or a whiter looking signal.  Less density is darker. 



Now look at this pattern (below).



As we magnify the TUS images (as seen in the images above) we see focal “patches” where the reflection is decreased (this means decreased reflective density of tissue). It is generally subtle and takes a careful look to actual see, but we don’t see these types of images in healthy children. We cannot be certain, but its tempting to speculate that these hyporeflective “patches” correspond to the same “patches”described by Courchesne’s UCSD team. 


Before I attempt to answer that, allow me to share 20 years of observations regarding autism. Over and over again parents tell me their child is really smart in many ways.  Based on typical measurements of “smart” that observation is hard to support.  However, we now have windows into their smart brain via facilitated communication and rapid prompting methods, which allow the children to tell their own stories. In all the cases I am aware of, they are processing many things at full proficiency, and yet find it nearly impossible to talk effectively.  Both my son’s own autism symptoms and those of my stepson, are very much the same.  I can best describe it as “focal” meaning there are asymmetrical strengths and weaknesses which don’t fit the typical model of autism neurodevelopment as either genetic or from within the womb, since these areas develop at differing times in the child’s life.


We know MRT (see prior posts on this blog) is a very effect way if improving harmonics, behavior, socialization and cognition in children. What we have started doing is combining the known effect on the brain’s physics with healing of the structures of the brain using stem cells, TUS, or more specifically focused sonication, and low level lasers.  Stem cells are not practical for many patients, but if you are interested in this method, explore my published research with my team members from EmCell and Italy (article below):


When Marco Ruggiero and I originally discussed the TUS project he had two interests: the first was to look and describe the observations, while the second was to treat the brain with TUS. He, in fact, was already doing that with ME/CFS patients and felt it could be helpful in ASD. Stuart Hameroff at the University of Arizona had just explored the possible application of TUS (sonication) of the brain as a therapy for pain states. See Below:


Six months after our TUS paper was published, a team from Harvard and Korea also proposed the therapeutic use of TUS as a non-invasive form of brain stimulation. They stated this in their paper (excerpted below): “The demand for methods enabling non-invasive brain stimulation with superior spatial specificity and penetration depth, therefore, has been warranted, and focused ultrasound (FUS) has emerged as a new modality that shows exceptional promise in the field of brain stimulation and subsequent functional brain mapping.”  So we have both TUS as a diagnostic consideration and FUS as a therapeutic potential in ASD.


Next we can add in the observations from Harvard on the use of transcranial lasers to repair the brain.



IMAGEs FROM:  J Biophotonics. 2012 Nov;5(11-12):827-37. doi: 10.1002/jbio.201200077. Epub 2012 Jul 17.

Transcranial low level laser (light) therapy for traumatic brain injury.

Huang YY1, Gupta A, Vecchio D, de Arce VJ, Huang SF, Xuan W, Hamblin MR.

  • 1Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

It therefore seems, that LLLT (known as photobiomodulation) has the therapeutic potential to stimulate existing stem cells to repair the brain (to the extent that is possible) and at the same time enhance the synaptic connections, reduce inflammation and correct mitochondrial dysfunction (pretty much the whole list of issues for autism apart from the physics component). Marco Ruggiero and I speculated that the decrease in the reflections noted via TUS results from the decrease in synaptic connections, but this has not been established through other means of testing. So, LLLT may be able to stimulate restoration in “patches” described by the UCSD team and what we believe we are observing on TUS. Add to this the effects of FUS (sonic stimulation) and we seem to have the basis of potential hardware repair.  Once the mechanical restoration is in place the potential for MRT can be enhanced. 

Pulling this all together, it appears the brain in ASD has structural abnormalities which are not going to be easily overcome.  However, enhances in our understanding of LLLT and TUS/FUS when combined with powerful tools like MRT, creates renewed hope for true restoration in ASD. These points will be further explained in my lectures at Autism One in a few weeks.

Dr. Bradstreet Lecturing 4 times at Autism One Conference in Chicago Illinois in May 2015

Follow the link below to register.


Dr. Bradstreet’s Schedule for Autism One 2015


3:00 pm – 5:00 pm

Louvre 3 CME – CM…, Confere… Advances in Understanding the Gut-Immune-Brain Link in Autism — CME program for medical professionals
James Jeffrey Bradstreet, MD

8:00 am – 9:00 am

Avedon Bio – B…, Confere… How Close Are We To An Autism Cure? Part 1
James Jeffrey Bradstreet, MD

5:15 pm – 6:30 pm

Cassatt Bio – B…, Confere… Understanding the Power of Magnetic Resonance Therapy — MRT(sm) — from the Parent’s Perspective.
James Jeffrey Bradstreet , MD
Kevin Murphy, MD

8:00 am – 9:00 am

Cassatt Bio – B…, Confere… How Close Are We To An Autism Cure? Part 2
James Jeffrey Bradstreet, MD

Lecture Highlights:

James Jeffrey Bradstreet, MD, MD(H), FAAFP, FMAPS

Dr. Bradstreet received undergrad and medical degrees from University of South Florida. His residency training was at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, with training at Brooks School of Aerospace Medicine and Randolph AFB. He is an adjunct professor and faculty for Autism Collaboration & Education at Western U in CA and a visiting professor at Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine. He is extensively published on biomedical issues of autism and was PI of two landmark studies: 1) involving a new methodology to view the brain with ultrasound, and 2) a double-blind study of the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation using a method known as MRT, for the treatment of autism — both registered with clinicaltrials.gov. Phase one of the ultrasound study was recently published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, and the MRT study completed in June of 2014. He is director of the Brain Treatment Center of Atlanta and is licensed in Georgia, Florida, California and Arizona.

Special Report: During Autism One, Dr. Bradstreet will introduce new observations related to transcranial laser (LLLT) applications for autism, and announce the new collaborative efforts to improve the specificity of medical marijuana therapy for autism related brain syndromes. [Note; Medical Marijuana is only legally available in specific states. The federal regulations on these state rules are in chaos].

Advances in Understanding the Gut-Immune-Brain Link in Autism — CME program for medical professionals

This course will explore the latest research on the microbiota regulation of the endocannabinoid and immune systems. The attendee will become familiar with the components of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and understand what fatty acids act as natural ligands for the various receptors. They will understand the difference between type 1 and 2 receptors as well as the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel and the unique G-couple receptors and their function. The process whereby dietary fats and carbohydrates act upon by the microbiome to create changes in ECS regulation and the implications for the brain’s intrinsic immune system will be presented. The course describes the critical role of Vitamin D, its receptors and transporter proteins, and their interactions with the ECS. Finally, the novel fatty acid: palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide, belonging to the class of nuclear factor agonists. Has no binding to CB1 or 2, but attaches to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) and cannabinoid-like G-coupled receptors GPR55 and GPR119. PEA is a powerful regulator of mast cells and in both human and animal studies has anti-inflammatory properties, which have implications for ASD immune and gastrointestinal dysfunction.

How Close Are We To An Autism Cure? Part 1

Dr. Bradstreet has been involved in autism related treatment and clinical research for nearly 2 decades. During that time, the theory of a genetic cause of autism has continued to decline, while the emergence of the “environment-gene” interaction theory of autism has gained in favor among scientists and parents. Clearly, autism is one of the most complex of all human disorders and challenges our understanding of the gut ecosystem, the immune pathways in the gut and the brain, and, ultimately, the regulation of brain physics. As complex as all that is, pathways for healing have emerged and more and more children are experiencing dramatic improvements – some to the extent that everyone would consider them “cured”. This course will present the foundations of healing and serves as the introduction to next presentation.

Understanding the Power of Magnetic Resonance Therapy — MRT(sm) — from the Parent’s Perspective.

Dr. Bradstreet will introduce the science of MRT(sm) and the ongoing research into brain physics and then introduce a panel of parents to further describe a balanced view of what may be expected from this unique form of intervention. In MRT treatment, BTC has augmented the well-established and safe technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) through a proprietary algorithm to deliver a patient-specific treatment based on the results of a quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG). In one expert’s words, “What the Brain Treatment Center has done is revolutionary. Using evidence-based principles with TMS, they have created a delivery system that customizes treatment based on the patient’s own QEEG….” [Dr. Kevin T. Murphy]. Dr. Bradstreet will share the one year outcome observations for the study patients.

How Close Are We To An Autism Cure? Part 2

Although toxins from industry, agriculture, and more shape the environment for children with autism, the largest and most impacted environmental factor for autism remains the internal ecosystem living in the intestines. That environment is shaped by complex communities of microbes interacting with the diet and the immune defenses of the child. The combined effect of environmental poisons and microbial chemistry directly influence the immune system in critical ways, while also affecting gene expression. The consequence of this interaction is disruption of the vital regulatory mechanisms of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS has control over mood, cognition, and immune regulation, and its dysfunction is recognized as the root cause of epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative illnesses like Alzheimer’s. Our new research points to the role of Vitamin D deficiency and changes in its binding protein, the gut ecosystem and dysregulation of the ECS as the primary issues in the majority of autism symptoms. Ultimately, the ECS also regulates brain physics in a way that disconnects neuro-processing. All of these issues must be properly repaired for each child to obtain their optimal functioning.

David’s parents want to share his “amazing” response to transcranial magnetic stimulation using the unique MRT protocol.

David is 16 years old and lives in southern Georgia about 5 hours away from our center in the Atlanta area. His parents asked me to post this on my blog “as is” with no redactions or edits.  They want to share their names so other parents will be encouraged that older individuals with autism can respond to MRT. Their willingness to come forward and share their son’s story is a gift for everyone’s understanding of how the recovery process occurs. And we all thank Dr. Yi Jin and the team at NBRL in Newport California for their support and development of the MRT program here in Georgia. And you can learn more about MRT programs in ASD and other applications at https://vimeo.com/braintreatmentcenter/videos 

Dr. Jeff,

We just wanted to write you a quick note regarding some of the changes we’ve been seeing since our son (David) started with MRT therapy at the Brain Treatment Center in the Buford, GA office last fall. We hope our observations help you in your ongoing evaluation of this treatment modality.

In short, our results have been amazing. David had a baseline EEG in September 2014 and came back a week later for a four-day trial run of MRT, plus another EEG to measure results after the trial treatment. In the next few weeks my husband and I noticed subtle changes. Our son seemed calmer, more able to control his emotions and to ask more in-depth questions. Example: David has a good diet. After MRT, he asked to try new foods. Any parent would be thrilled with that. He also started reading the labels of food & alerted Mom if something was not completely GFCF.

Another first, he asked in detail about his food allergies. He became a conscious participant in his recovery—something he seemed to want as much as we did. When we received the post EEG results, we started to understand these changes. There had been significant, documented changes in David’s brain functions in the areas targeted.

Encouraged, we brought David back for a full week of treatment at the end of October 2014. He experienced some heightened sensitivity with hearing and smell for a few days after the treatment. Then he started becoming more independent than ever before. We saw this first in his schooling.

David attends school online now. At first we had to drag him from his room and force him to do the lessons, completing half the work ourselves. Within a week after October’s treatment, he started wanting to do the work alone. He liked doing it and took pride in being able to do it. He ordered us “to leave him alone” so that he could go to school on his own. He said he would call us if he needed help. We thought we were hallucinating.

“Let me do it” became the new norm for David. Again he started asking more questions and asking for advice. He frequently thought about things Mom and Dad said to him, then returned hours later with a “Thank you,” informing us our comments made sense. “You were right all along” is now something our son tells us from time to time. To hear that from any teenager is rare. But the real payoff is knowing that our son can listen, take in what we say, then show appreciation. He recently completed a lesson in school about parenting and asked us later if “we went through all that” while raising him. That’s awareness!

In mid-November, David revealed to us he had a “secret” that he needed to tell. He feared we would be upset with him. He’s a teen, so we braced ourselves for the worst. David confided he had filled out an online form and had been accepted as a Wikipedia editor. We were in complete disbelief and checked it out. The son that once could not write a sentence without a meltdown was now a Wikipedia editor. All David’s submissions have been approved and published (see an example attached). We asked David when he started this. He said it was the end of last September– two weeks after the trial MRT. His Dad is an English teacher and measured his writing to be on the college level, and David had no help from us. It’s like the MRT cleared a path for his intelligence to come out.

In January 2015 David returned for his third week of MRT. The changes we have seen since are equally remarkable. David now self-monitors his bedtime so he can get eight hours of sleep each night. He sets his own alarm and gets himself up in the morning. He’s on a swim team and is ready to go of the mornings before Mom can remind him it’s time to leave.

He no longer needs help with daily lessons at school, which he insists on completing lessons by himself. Overall, he is a more mature, calm, happy, thoughtful and independent teen. We cannot say things do not bother or upset him. He still has occasional emotional outbursts, but they are about things that would upset any normal teen. His ability to deal with setbacks and to control what bothers him is undeniably different from his pre-MRT self.

As a family we have traveled hours to see you for more than ten years for treatment (and we thank God for you). During the long drives, David usually stims/tunes out with electronics. But driving to our last visit, David asked to play a new game: He wanted to ask 20 questions about Mom’s life. For over two hours he asked and I answered questions while we chatted about my childhood. When we arrived at the BTC office, David thanked me for being honest about my life. On the way back David wanted to know more about his Dad’s life. When we arrived home, our son said: “I never knew all this about my parents.” Indeed, he had never been able to ask before.

Since last May, David has been in enrolled in Gemm Learning’s “Fast ForWord” program to increase his reading fluency and comprehension. He has made satisfactory progress and, like schoolwork, we’ve struggled to get him to focus on it. After MRT, Davey’s progress and desire have skyrocketed. His teachers at Gemm even commented on sudden change. It was great to have third-part confirmation of our own observations. The only thing we can attribute the boost in progress to is MRT therapy, as we have not done anything else different.

The cost, time and travel for MRT therapy are a serious commitment. It hasn’t been easy, but the results have been worth every penny, every mile, and every night in a motel room. In our eyes, David is proof that MRT is a treatment that can make a huge difference. For the first time we have hope that David will make a full enough recovery to live an independent life. We encourage every parent to give at least the trial a chance. Children will react differently to any treatment. We feel like we hit the jackpot on this one.

Thank you, Dr. Jeff. You continue to be our shinning light of encouragement and hope for our son. Bless you for never giving up and for giving our David a solid chance in life. Thank you for bringing MRT therapy within our reach on the East Coast. You will forever be our hero.

Kristi & David Taylor

Lighting a Path for Autism Recovery?

Light energy is critical to human health.  We need the spectrum of blue light in the morning to signal out intrinsic production of melatonin 12-14 hours later in the day. Blue light in the morning is absolutely critical to proper sleep in the evening.  And the importance of restoring sleep cannot be over-stated. The human brain requires proper rest for proper function.

Photo from http://braintreatmentcenter.asia/english/sleep/

Swiss Researchers recently discovered the chronic sleep issues of modern teenagers were do to looking at computer screens and their phones late at night and the simple use of blue filtering lenses prevented the sleep issues.


I have been studying the use of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in neurological conditions and this safe therapy will be studied at our center in Buford, Georgia near Atlanta.


From what we know about autism, LLLT has many potential restorative features that warrant our attention. The figure below is from Hamblin’s group at the Harvard-MIT LLLT research center.


Figure 1. Possible mechanisms of transcranial low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Mitochondrial signaling causes increased neuronal survival; lowered edema, inflammation and excitotoxicity; and increased angiogenesis, neurotrophins, and neural progenitor cells. ROS: Reactive oxygen species. NO: Nitric oxide. NGF: Nerve growth factor. BDNF: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. NT-3: Neurotrophin-3. [Michael Hamblin, Ying-Ying Huang, Quihe Wu, Weijun Xuan, Takahiro Ando, Tao Xu, Sulbha Sharma and Gitika Kharkwal. One exposure to a near-IR laser four hours after a head trauma significantly improves neurological performance and reduces lesion size.5 May 2011, SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1201102.003573]

I have established a team of international experts in LLLT to assist the development of programs for autism and traumatic brain injuries. LLLT may also have applications for ME/CFS Fibromyalgia patients as well. I’ll have more on this in the near future. 

Thinking Mom’s Revolution eConference on Medical Marijuana

Any person connected to TV or the internet is aware the cannabis revolution is here.  But why?  The apparent reasons are relatively simple: chronic diseases are not the product of pharmaceutic deficiency – meaning taking drugs doesn’t fix the cause. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) was discovered through marijuana research decades ago, but it hasn’t been until recently that the ECS has been more fully appreciated.  This system links what you eat to how you feel and how you live – including you mood and your immune system. It also decides if you get heart disease, diabetes and Alzheimer’s.  New data from our research would indicate it also regulates the expression of autism in a child’s development.  On Thursday at 1 PM Eastern US time I will be presenting a 1 hour lecture on the TMR eConference on this vital subject.  Regardless of your feeling on “weed” the ECS cannot be ignored and it is much more important than merely the marijuana effects.

Visit the TMR site here: the click below in the side doesn’t work but this one does. https://attendee.gototraining.com/r/2125765357871997185


See you then! But until then think about these…






Sorting Out the Confusion Regarding Hyperbaric Applications to Various Neurological Disorders

Hyperbaric Oxygen often referred to HBOT is a well-established and accepted intervention for many disorders ranging from gangrene to non-healing skin wounds and pressure ulcers for the bedridden. However, its potential applications are much greater than then presently accepted and FDA approved indications.  Sadly, the FDA approval process is very expensive and few institutions could ever afford the process of applying and even if they did they would never recoup the cost of the research and legal expenses required to get the next indication approved for HBOT.  The technology (hyperbaric chambers capable of the pressures required) are widely available in hospitals and HBOT centers.  So anyone pushing the new indication through the FDA would be doing it for the benefit of all centers and that is an unlikely business model for success.  Even more concerning is that third party payers use the FDA approval stamp as their threshold for reimbursement, so nearly all of the possible applications of HBOT to neurological disorders goes uncovered by insurers. 

We will take a look at some of the data the FDA and insurers are blind to, but first a little about my background in hyperbaric medicine goes back to my days in the US Air Force where I was trained in Aerospace Medicine; including Hyperbarics.  I worked at McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) and participated in research regarding F15 and F18 pilot stress and ways to improve pilot g-force tolerance.  And yes this really is me on the wing of an F18 at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California, where I received training from  Marine pilots.




PLOS is a highly respected open-access scientific journal and this team headed by the Institute of Hyperbaric Medicine in Zefrin Israel, has put together some excellent data regarding the application of HBOT to late effects of neurological injuries (both stroke and post-traumatic head injuries).  Lets look at the delayed benefits for stroke first.


These images indicate the area of the brain damaged by a stroke and the effect of HBOT at restoring blood flow to that region even very late after the stroke (images gathered in the study are from 6-36 months after a stroke).  But restoring blood wouldn’t mean very much if it didn’t also restore function.  Here is a quote from the abstract: “HBOT protocol: Two months of 40 sessions (5 days/week), 90 minutes each, 100% oxygen at 2 ATA. We found that the neurological functions and life quality of all patients in
both groups were significantly improved following the HBOT sessions while no improvement was found during the control period of the patients in the cross group. Results of SPECT imaging were well correlated with clinical improvement. Elevated brain activity was detected mostly in regions of live cells (as confirmed by CT) with low activity (based on SPECT) – regions of noticeable discrepancy between anatomy and physiology.”

So this is very strong data in favor of using this particular protocol for post stroke patients.  For years I have advocated 2.2 ATA (about equal to 40 feet of water pressure) but at mere room air.  One of the reasons I favor this protocol over the 100% O2 approach has to do with the blood vessel constriction that occurs with 100% O2.  That tightening of blood flow is EXACTLY what we want in acute head injuries but it has always seemed less desirable in late effects. The 2.2 room air approach has also seemed very helpful and we are seeing recovery after severe (nearly fatal) head injury in the Hyperbaric PHP Center in Buford, GA. (More information is available at their website (http://www.hyperbaricphp.com/) and I suggest contacting Bill at the center if you have more questions.

Here is another publication from the Israeli team:



And here is the overall effect on cognition from their research.


The real question is this: given the terrible effects of head injury and stroke on the quality of life and productivity of the individuals suffering with these conditions, why don’t insurers pay for this therapy and why doesn’t FDA take the initiative to include these treatments in their approved applications of HBOT?  When you figure that one out let me know, but my guess is it all comes down to money and more indications means more expense for the government and insurance companies.  So for now, if you need this treatment it unfortunately be at your own expense. From all we know, that expense surely seems well justified.